William Lutz (Editor), “What Do We Know,“ Beyond Nineteen Eighty-Four: Doublespeak in a Post-Orwellian Age, (Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English, 1989), p.43:
There is simply too much to cope with for any of us to be able to distinguish the most blatant misinformation, disinformation, semi-information, or anti-information, even if we are inclined to try. There is no way for members of the public to know anything that bears much relationship to any reality, including their own personal variety.
Compounding the problem is the fact that there is simply no method of ‘analysis,’ no any paradigm, nor any ‘system,’ nor any chart, nor any anything other than direct knowledge of ‘the truth’ that permits anything other than suspended judgment. Who is telling the truth? How would one go about determining that? Who is doublespeaking? Or not? or propagandizing? Or not? In the absence of direct, unimpeachable, verifiable, adequate, accurate information, there is simply no way to make a feasible judgment.