Carlo Cipolla, Robert J. Stenberg, and More on Stupidity | Part 1

CARLO M. CIPOLLA

In his 1976 essay, Carlo proposed the five basic laws of human stupidity:

  1. Always and inevitably everyone underestimates the number of stupid individuals in circulation.
  2. The probability that a certain person (will) be stupid is independent of any other characteristic of that person.
  3. A stupid person is a person who causes losses to another person or to a group of persons while himself deriving no gain and even possibly incurring losses.
  4. Non-stupid people always underestimate the damaging power of stupid individuals. In particular non-stupid people constantly forget that at all times and places and under any circumstances to deal and/or associate with stupid people always turns out to be a costly mistake.
  5. A stupid person is the most dangerous type of person

– Carlo M. Cipolla was a professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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